The name of the Messiah is Yeshua, short for Yehoshua (יהושע), which means ‘Yah is salvation’. The forms Yahshua and Yahoshua are the names of the Messiah in Aramaic

We are going to look at a saying of Yeshua the Messiah which has been misunderstood by many and we are going to compare the traditional translation with the ancient Hebrew Matthew of Even Bohan

Matthew 10:28 [KJV]28 And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul {Greek: psuche; Hebrew: nephesh} but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.[Yeshua's words in purple]

When we read the traditional rendering of this verse, we seem to be in front of a Platonic text, in other words, a text that is influenced by Platonic philosophy.

Plato (ca. 428 to 348 before Yeshua) was a Greek philosopher whose teachings spanned a period of 8 to 9 centuries. His school of thought had acceptance in both the Jewish and the Christian world, and was in existence during Yeshua’s time.
Plato believed and taught that the soul is eternal, that is, it always existed but additionally, it is immortal and cannot be destroyed. According to this philosophy, man is basically composed of body and soul. At the moment of death the body decomposes but the soul lives on eternally.
When the Scriptures were translated to the western languages (English, Spanish, French…), some verses were translated with a platonic leaning.

There is a fine line between Greek thought as taught by Plato and Hebrew thought as it is written in the Torah. When the Torah was first translated into Greek, the concept of soul was expressed in the Greek term «psuche» which is translated as ‘soul’ 99% of the time. In English the term ‘soul’ does not always imply the same meaning of Plato’s philosophy. For example, when we go to a place and nobody is there we say “not a soul was there”, here the word ‘soul’ refers to people. Another example would be, when we hear bad news we say “it hurt my soul when I heard the news”, this does not refer to that section that is disconnected with our body rather it implies deep pain.
In essence, the Platonic meaning of «psuche» translated as ‘soul’ refers to a part of the human being that is eternal and immortal, and continues living when our body dies.
In the Septuagint (first translation from Hebrew to Greek), the Hebrew term «nephesh» was translated as «psuche» (Greek). So in Genesis, we see the following

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Genesis 2:7And יהוה Elohim formed the man out of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils breath of life {neshamah}. And the man became a living being {nephesh}.

That term <living soul> {nephesh chay} was translated to the Greek as «psuche». So, from the translators of the Septuagint viewpoint, «psuche» does not necessarily imply the Platonic immortal soul. This Greek word means air, breath, wind, which is, in essence, the same as the Hebrew «nephesh».
In the Hebrew writings we will see that it is the person itself is composed of its spiritual capacity, of its thoughts.

Leviticus 4:2727 ‘And if any being {nephesh} of the people of the land sins by mistake by doing against any of the commands of יהוה which are not to be done, and shall be guilty, 

The word translated here as <being {nephesh}> clearly does not imply the immortal soul and refers to people

Leviticus 23:3029 “For any being {nephesh} who is not afflicted on that same day, he shall be cut off from his people. 

Again, here «nephesh» refers to persons.
The following verses show us that «nephesh» can die and is translated, at times, as <life>

Numbers 31:19Whoever has slain any being {nephesh}, and whoever has touched any slain, cleanse yourselves
2 Samuel 14:7...Give him who smote his brother, so that we put him to death for the life {nephesh} of his brother whom he killed

The following verse talks about a dead «nephesh»

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Numbers 6:66 All the days of his separation to יהוה he does not go near a dead body {nephesh muth}.

In Genesis we see that animals also have the breath of life {neshamah}

Genesis 7:15, 2215 And they went into the ark to Noaḥ, two by two, of all flesh in which is the breath {ruach} of life {living beings}...22 All in whose nostrils was the breath {neshamah} of the spirit {ruach} of life, all that was on the dry land, died.

Animal life depends on the action of breathing. Animals have «neshamah» as well because it is not the soul rather, it is the breath of life.
When the children of Yisrael was at war with the Hittites, Amorites and the Canaanites, the Eternal instructs them

Deuteronomy 20:1616 “Only, of the cities of these peoples which יהוה your Elohim gives you as an inheritance, you do not keep alive any that breathe {neshamah},

Clearly, this verse is talking about human life.
«Neshamah» and «nephesh» express a form of life that inhales and exhales.

A verse that is used to support the Greek Platonic ideology

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Ecclesiastes 12:7 and the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit {ruach} returns to Elohim who gave it. 

At first glance it seems that this verse is talking about the duality of the human being as presented by Platonic ideology. When the person dies the body goes to the ground but the spirit returns to the Eternal. This is one of the verses that is most used to highlight the idea that the immortal soul (here it is «ruach») goes on living because it returns to its source, Elohim. In this way, they claim that human beings are spirit. The body dies but the identity, the spirit continues to live.
Where do the Scriptures inform us that the identity of the human being is «nephesh» or «neshamah» or «ruach»? Human beings are dust plus the breath of life.
All of this seems in contradiction to Yeshua’s words in Matthew. The above text, clearly shows us a Hebrew idea and not a Greek one. At the moment of death each element goes back to its source.

nephesh (Hebrew) - breathing creature, breathneshamah (Hebrew) - wind, breath, inspirationruach (Hebrew) - wind, breath, (fig.) lifepsuche (Greek) - air, breath, wind


Genesis 3:9For dust you are, and to dust you return

According to this verse our identity is <dust> and not the soul.
The concept of an immortal soul does not exist in the Scriptures

Psalm 103:14 For He knows how we are made; He remembers that we are dust. 
Psalm 104:29 You hide Your face, they are alarmed; You take away their breath, they die and return to their dust
Psalm 146:4 His spirit goes out, he returns to his earth; In that day his plans perish. 

When our body dies, we die, our emotions die, our thoughts die and nothing transcends death.
The immortal soul is non-existent.

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Going back to Matthew 10 :28, to understand it better, we should carry on reading and in verse 39 we find the following

Matthew 10:39 “He who has found his life {psuche} shall lose it, and he that has lost his life {psuche} for My sake shall find it. 

In Matthew 10:28 «psuche» is translated as ‘soul’
in Matthew 10:39 «psuche» is translated as ‘life’.
Is «psuche» life or immortal soul? Matthew 10:28 has to be read together with Matthew 10:39.
The teachings of Yeshua have nothing to do with the Platonic concept of the immortal soul. The Tanach teaches, as Yeshua does, that «nephesh» (Hebrew) or «psuche» (Greek) can die and can be lost.
Those who kill the body cannot kill the life after the resurrection. If you lose your life for the sake of Yeshua, you will find life in the resurrection. If we are an immortal soul then the resurrection makes no sense.
Life after the resurrection is in the hands of the Eternal. That life after the resurrection is what is being discussed here that which lives after death is the life that we can have if we establish a relationship with the Eternal. If we are loyal and obedient to the Eternal, He is loyal and will grant us the gift of life.
The ancient Hebrew Matthew reads

Matthew 10 28, 3928 Do not fear those who kill bodies who have no power to kill lives;but fear the one who has power to destroy the life and the body inGehenna.39 He who loves his life will lose it, he who loses (it) for my sake willfind it.

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture was taken from The Scriptures
Copyright by Institute for Scripture Research.
Used by permission.


What does the Bible say about killing the body but not the soul? ›

And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. The New International Version translates the passage as: Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul.

What does Matthew 10 28 42 say? ›

Tribulation, distress, and persecution cannot take away God's love to them, or theirs to him. Fear Him, who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. They must deliver their message publicly, for all are deeply concerned in the doctrine of the gospel.

What is the difference between the soul and the spirit? ›

Your soul speaks of your inner-life in relation to your own experience: your mind, heart, will, and imagination. It also includes your thoughts, desires, passions, and dreams. But your spirit speaks of the same inner-life in relation to God: your faith, hope, love, character, and perseverance.

What is the meaning of Matthew 28 10? ›

It shows that Jesus stands with the disciples, even though they deserted him, and shows that Jesus considers the relationship unruptured by the events of the crucifixion. Schweizer notes that in the original Greek, the word translated as brothers is gender neutral and can refer to both Jesus' male and female followers.

What does the Bible say about cremation of the human body? ›

What does the Bible say about cremation? According to most Biblical study websites, there is no explicit scriptural command for or against cremation. There are no passages that forbid cremation, according to most Biblical scholars. However, some passages describe standard death practices during these times.

What does the Bible say about being around dead bodies? ›

"Whoever touches the dead body of anyone will be unclean for seven days. He must purify himself with the water on the third day and on the seventh day; then he will be clean. But if he does not purify himself on the third and seventh days, he will not be clean.

What is the meaning of John 13 20? ›

Those who claim the name of Jesus ought to follow His example. That means humility and service for others—if the Lord serves others, so too should those who follow Him. Jesus also points out that not everyone at this event truly follows Him.

What does Matthew 25 40 say? ›

Matthew 25:40 NIV

“The King will reply, 'Truly I tell you, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers and sisters of mine, you did for me. '

What is the meaning of Matthew 11 11? ›

According then to the first interpretation it will be pointed, He who is least in the kingdom of heaven, is greater than he; according to the second, He who is less than he, is in the kingdom of heaven greater than he." Chrysostom: " The kingdom of heaven, that is, in the spiritual world, and all relating thereto.

Where is your soul located in your body? ›

The soul or atman, credited with the ability to enliven the body, was located by ancient anatomists and philosophers in the lungs or heart, in the pineal gland (Descartes), and generally in the brain.

What is your soul made of? ›

Many religious and philosophical traditions support the view that the soul is the ethereal substance – a spirit; a non-material spark – particular to a unique living being.

Does the Bible say where the soul is located? ›

Modern scholarship. The modern scholarly consensus holds that the canonical teaching of the Old Testament made no reference to an immortal soul independent of the body. A wide range of scholarly reference works consistently represent this view.

What does John 20 1 9 mean? ›

Our Lord Jesus Christ's rising from the death will always be a meaningful reminder that evil was overcome by our God's infinite power and God's ultimate love for mankind that He let His only begotten Son carry the heavy cross, to die and to save us from our sins.

What is the meaning of Matthew 28 4? ›

Matthew 28:4 is the fourth verse of the twenty-eighth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. This verse is part of the resurrection narrative; describing the reaction of the tomb guards after the arrival of the angel of the Lord and the occurrence of an earthquake that opened the tomb.

What is the meaning of Matthew 28 5? ›

The broader and deeper implication of the words to the women is that they never have to be afraid, because Christ arose. "He is not here," the angel says. It means not only that He is no longer in this grave, but also that He is no longer in this world of death.

Where does soul go after death? ›

Heaven and Hell

Some believe in the possibility of a heaven on Earth in a world to come. In Hinduism, heaven is considered as Svarga loka. There are seven positive regions the soul can go to after death and seven negative regions.

What is the soul according to the Bible? ›

The only Hebrew word traditionally translated "soul" (nephesh) in English-language Bibles refers to a living, breathing conscious body, rather than to an immortal soul.

Where in the Bible does it say your body is not yours? ›

Do you not know that your bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your bodies.

What does the Bible say about the soul? ›

This soul is capable of knowing God and enjoying God, and it is capable of sinning against God, something the animals cannot do. This is at the heart of what God is saying when he says, “You are made in the image of God” (Genesis 1:26-27). God has breathed life into you and that life will never end.


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